Saturday, September 24, 2016

Battle of Bloody Marsh #history #georgiapioneers

Battle of Bloody Marsh

By Jeannette Holland Austin
Battle of Bloody Marsh Battle of Bloody Marsh When an English trader by the name of Jenkins violated a trade agreement with Spain, and the ear of Jenkins cut off as an example, a war was declared. General James Edward Oglethorpe was promoted to the office of General and given the assignment to fight the Spanish in Northern Florida. The war is known to historians as the "Battle of Jenkins Ear".

On July 7, 1742, several Spanish vessels landed on St. Simon's Island and commenced walking towards Ft. Frederica expecting to fight european-style in an open field. Meanwhile, the highlanders hid in the woods and attacked guerrilla-style in an open marsh. This battle is known as the Battle of Bloody Marsh. Although the English were significantly out numbered, the confusing guerrilla tactics of the Scottish Highlanders, resulted in an important English victory. The Spanish galleons left Georgia and sailed for Cuba. Although General Oglethorpe won the land war with Spain, he had been in the colony for fifteen years and by the time that he returned England the victory went unlauded by his contemporaries.

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Friday, September 23, 2016

The Castillo San Marcos Bombed by Oglethorpe #history #georgiapioneers

Castillo San Marcos

By Jeannette Holland Austin
Castillo de San Marcos
The Spanish held Northern Florida beginning in 1565. On September 8th, Pedro Menendez de Aviles landed on the shore of what is now called Matanzas Bay and began the founding of the Presidio of San Agustin. Later the settlement was called St. Augustine, Florida. The castle or fort was constructed on the site of an ancient Native American village, and near the place where Ponce de Leon landed in 1513 in search of the legendary Fountain of Youth. General James Edward Oglethorpe held a siege against the fort in 1742, however, cannon balls were unable to penetrate the well-secured stone fortress and a fleet of ships promised by Governor Johnson of South Carolina designed block the harbor became stuck on a sandbar. Meanwhile, the regiments of Oglethorpe suffered from yellow fever and dysentery, and Oglethorpe himself had to be transported on a litter back to Ft. Frederica. The Spanish waited two years before they retaliated.

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Thursday, September 22, 2016

The Parallel Universe of Archeology and Genealogy #georgiapioneers

Jeannette Holland AustinThe Parallel Universe of Archaeology and Genealogy

By Jeannette Holland Austin
One might suppose that archaeology is a parallel universe to tracing ancestors, but actually it is so close to what we are doing! Archaeologists sift dirt through a sieve and dig for evidence, then take soil samples to determine the age. Old burial tombs and graves and the building materials play significant roles in discerning age and era.

While the archaeologist does not usually locate written proof other than upon monuments, he gathers bits and pieces which assist in establishing a time-line. The genealogist and historian would do well to adapt the findings of the archaeologist to other historical evidence. One tiny example is to consider how people named their children. Have you observed how many surnames appear as a given name? The practice of naming the first son after the parents of the couple frequently includes a surname. This interesting practice preserves the history of a particular family and possibly its origin.

Ft. Frederica, Georgia

During 1947 a dig was commenced on St. Simon's Island, Georgia at the site of Fort Frederica and it was discovered that the old town was laid out in an orderly fashion and strategically to defend the fort against Spanish invasion. It featured two wards divided by a 75-foot-wide main corridor called Broad Street and eighty-four regularly spaced lots. Barracks Street, the cross street, led to the regimental quarters of the regiments of General Oglethorpe. The discovery revealed a star-shaped fortress with a magazine and spur battery of cannon. The citadel was constructed of tabby, a concrete-type mixture of sand, lime and shells plentiful in the region. As part of the plan, the military support town covered forty acres of land. It was in this town that Oglethorpe brought the first settlement of thirty men during February of 1736. What they discovered was an old Indian corn field with a commanding view of inland waterways and salty sea marshes. A description was provided by John Percival, the earl of Egmont, in his Journal remarked that the "bay within was very secure for shipping" and the southern mouth of the Altamaha River was "land lock'd from the Winds." Oglethorpe traced out a fort with four bastions, "dug enough of the ditch and raised enough of the Rampart for a sample for the Men to work upon."

The first residents of Frederica came from England, Scotland, Germany, Switzerland, as well as Creek Indians of the Yamacraw tribe. According to records kept by the Trustees of the Georgia Charter, certain persons were appointed to positions of importance before arriving in the colony. Such was the case of the uneducated Mr. Anderson, who owned an apothecary shop but was also the local magistrate. Generally speaking, although a substantial number of emigrants paid their own passage, others were poor persons who went to Georgia at the expense of the Trustees.

Sources: Journal of John Percival, Candler's Colonial Records of Georgia.; Fort Frederica National Monument

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Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Images of Glynn Co. GA Wills, Estates, City Directories #genealogy #georgiapioneers

Glynn County Wills and Estates



Brunswick

Glynn County Court House

General Oglethorpe first put settlers on St. Simons Island in 1836; the transport was primarily Englishmen. The first parish church was located on the island. After 1848 when Oglethorpe won the land war with Spain and disbanded his Georgia regiment and returned to England, settlers began to desert the military post and find land grants throughout the county. Many of them removed to McIntosh and Liberty Counties. The Colonial period was divided by the parishs of St. David, St. Parick and St. Jones, organized in 1758.Glynn County was created in 1777 and named in honor of John Glynn, a member of the British House of Commons who defended the cause of the American Colonies in the difficulties which led to the Revolutionary War. Research should also include the Colonial Records of Georgia by Candler; Mcintosh and Liberty Counties.

Records Available to Members of Georgia Pioneers Wills and Estates
  • Wills & Appraisements 1809-1843.
  • Wills & Appraisements 1842-1849.
  • Images of Wills & Appraisements 1856-1866
  • Will Book E 1856-1866.
    Names of Testators: Bell, W. W., Brooks, Samuel,Burnett, Samuel M.,Clubb, James W.,Corbit, Samuel, Couper, James Hamilton,Dart, Anna,Davenport, William G., DuBignon, Felicitt,Fins, Job,Gignilliat, John M.,Golden, Thomas, Hamilton, James,Harris, Horace J.,Hazlehurst, Frances L.,Hazzard, Thomas T. (Dr.),Hillier, Thomas,Hinkman,, R. S.,Holland, John, Hooker, Ann O.,Hubbs, James S. Sr.,Jenkins, William,Johnston, P. C., Jones, Daniel,King, Ann Matilda,King, Matilda, wife of Thomas Butler King,King, Thomas,Lamb, Celia,Mc Conn, P. H.,Moore, J. W.,Moore, Sarah, Moore, S. B.,O'Sullivan, Florence,Pettigrew, George W.,Piles, John, Ratcliff, James M.,Roden, John,Royall, Horace J.,Rumph, John R., Spears, Anderson,Stafford, Robert,Stevens, Charles, Tison, Job, Ira and Mrs. J. L.,Troup, James, Truscott, William, Turner, William,Welbourne, Charles,Westmoreland, Eardly G.,Wood, John R.,Woolley, Vardy.
  • Images of Original Wills & Estates 1809-1845
Indexes to Probate Records
  • Wills, Inventories, Appraisements, Bk D 1810-1843.
  • Wills, Inventories, Appraisements, Bk D 1844-1853.
Marriages
  • 1818 to 1852.
  • Marriages from newspapers 1885-1886.
Maps
  • Map of Blythe Island.
City Directories
  • 1890 Brunswick
  • 1892 Brunswick.
  • 1892 St. Simons Island.
  • 1898 St. Simons Island.

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Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Images of Glascock Co. GA Wills & Estates #genealogy #georgiapioneers

Glascock County Wills and Estates

Glascock County Glascock County was created from Warren County on December 19, 1857 by an act of the General Assembly (Georgia Laws 1857, page 35). The county was named for General Thomas Glascock (1790-1841), who fought in the War of 1812 and Seminole War; served in the Georgia General Assembly and Congress. County Seat is Gibson. Early settlers: George W. Allen, Richard Beckworth, Martiller Braddy, Richard Clark, G. C. Dixon, W. T. Griffin, Henry Harris, Eli Harris, John Kent, Joel Landrum, William Marsh, California Newsome, Robert McNair, James Rabun, Isom Peebles, Henry Seals, Hiram Thigpen, Peter Usry, W. T. Underwood, Richard Walen and Larkin Wilcher.

Glascock County Records Available to Members of Georgia Pioneers

Indexes to Probate Records
  • Will Bk A 1859-1937.
  • Will Bk B 1932-1966.
  • Annual Returns, Inventories, Sales, Vouchers, Estates, 1864 to 1869
  • Annual Returns, Inventories, Sales, Vouchers, Estates, 1869 to 1881
  • Annual Returns, Inventories, Sales, Vouchers, Estates, 1897 to 1906
Images of Wills 1859 to 1900
Testators: Allen, George W. | Barton, Martha J. | Chalker, Hodge | Cheely, John | Allen, Clark, Richard N. | Dickson, Bynam | Dixon, G. C. | Dixon, Purtiman | Glover, Seaborn | Grizzard, Thomas | Hadden, Thomas H. | Hannah, J. F. | Harden, J. D. | Harris, Henry P. | Harris, Joday | Hart, Samuel | Hattaway, John W. | Hewett, Matthew | Howell, Maberry | Kelley, Allen | Kent, John | Land, John | Landrum, Joel | Logue, Calvin | Logan, William | Newsom, Marian | Newsome, California | Nunn, James M. | Rabun, James | Seals, Henry B. | Thigpen, Hiram | Thompson, Nathaniel | Todd, Eleany | Towner, Walter | Ursy, Peter | Ursy, Peter | Ursy, R. L. | Walden, Richard | Wilcher, Jeremiah | Wilcher, Ruth | Wilcher, Larkin | Williams, James M. |
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Monday, September 19, 2016

Habersham Co. GA Genealogy Records #georgiapioneers

Habersham County Wills, Estates, Marriages, Newspapers

Lake Burton After the Creeks and Cherokees were removed from Georgia, a land lottery was held for the purpose of drawing land. In Habersham, the draw was for 250 and 490 acres. Many settlers came from Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina. Ancestor Researchers should also search the records in Rabun, Banks, White and Cherokee Counties. Thus, Habersham County was created in 1818 and was named for Joseph Habersham, Revolutionary War Soldier and US Postmaster General, a direct descendant of the prominent James Habersham, first settler to Savannah. It lies in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains in North East Georgia. The first white inhabitants inhabited lands which came from the Indian cessions of 1818 and 1819. They settled along the banks of the county's four major rivers, the Chattahoochee, Soque, Tallulah, and Tugaloo. When gold was discovered in northeast Georgia, this resulted in the Cherokee removal of 1838. Parts of the original county lands were given to Banks, Cherokee, Lumpkin, Rabun, Stephens, and White counties, decreasing Habersham County to 278 square miles.

Habersham County Records Available to Members of Georgia Pioneers

Digital Images of Habersham County Wills 1824 to 1848
Testators:Adams, James; Allan, A. M.; Allan, Hannah; Allan, James; Askew, Josiah; Ayres, Nathaniel; Brewer, Henry; Brock, Moses; Burns, Martha; Carr, Kinchen; Cash, Howard Sr.; Davidson, Frederick; Deavors, George; Edwards, Enoch; England, Joseph; Freeman, Jeptha; Gazaway, Thomas; Hackett, Robert; Holcombe, Sherwood; Holeman, Henry; Horton, Edwin; Hughs, William; Hunter, James; King, John; Kinsy, Peter; Martin, Elizabeth; McIntyre, John; McKinney, Elizabeth; McKinney, Mordecai ; Mize, Zachariah ;Morgan, Samuel Sr. ;Morris, John ; Phillips, Fanny ;Popham, John ;Powell, Miriam ;Powell, Thomas; Russell, David; Starr, Elijah; Stephens, Hezekiah ; Wallers, Clement ;Wofford, James ;Wofford, William H.
  • Habersham County Estates 1820-1850.(abstracts)
  • Habersham County Minutes 1842-1853. (abstracts)
Indexes to Probate Records
  • Index to Habersham County Inventories, Appraisements, Sales, 1819-1928.
  • Index to Habersham County Annual Returns, Vouchers, 1879-1957.
Marriages
  • Habersham County Marriages from newspapers 1885-1886.
Images of Newspapers (select issues)
  • The Democest

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Sunday, September 18, 2016

Images of Gordon Co. GA Wills & Estates #genealogy #georgiapioneers

Gordon County Wills and Estates

Gordon County Gordon County was created on Feb. 13, 1850 and was formed formed from portions of Cass (later renamed Bartow) and Floyd counties. All lands that would become Gordon County were originally occupied by the Cherokee Indians. Early Settlers: John Armstrong, John Atchison, John Baugh, W. N. Blalock, William J. Campbell, R. A. Donaldson, John Dobbins, T. M. Ellis, H. T. Ferguson, Frank Ford, Mountain Greason, Samuel Hurt, W. S. Johnson, W. B. Jackson, John King, B. R. Mayes, R. L. Norrell, Wiley Roberts, M. G. Scott, John Sloan, John Taylor, and W. T. Wofford.

Records Available to Members of Georgia Pioneers

Digital Images of Wills 1856 to 1894
Testators: Abbott, Elizabeth;Adcox, Wilson;Akin, Thomas;Armstrong, John H.; Atherton, Ann;Atkinson, John; Bagwell, Mary;Bailey, Amelia;Ballew, Joshua;Barrett, D. B.; Baxter, Benjamin;Bennett, A. L. ;Black, Zachariah;Blalock, W. H.; Bolding, Benjamin; Borders, Andrew;Borders, Randolph;Boston, G. W.;Bowen, Israel;Bradley, John; Burnett, Agness Terrell;Buckner, J. B.; Burch, William W.;Butler, Absalom;Byram, H. C.;Callaghan, Cornelius;Campbell, Joseph;Campfield, Rebecca;Campfield, Sarah;Campbell, W. J.;Cantrell, James A.;Chastain, John ;Daniel, Tilman;Darnell. A. J.; Dillard, William;Dobbins, John;Durham, Lavina;Dye, Margarett E.;Ferguson, John; Fite, Nancy;Fricks, Michael;Gaines, Elizabeth;Ganaway, Thomas;Garlington, Eliza; Gold, Sterling;Grant, Sarah;Grant, Tams;Gravitt, John;Greason, Mountain;Hall, Thomas;Haynes, John ; Hays, Sarah;Henson, Presley;Hood, R. D., Mrs.;Houk, H. B.;Hunt, Ann J.;Hunt, Samuel;Jackson, Edmund Calaway;Jarrett, William;Jennings, James;Johnson, James; King, William;Kinman, Wesley;Mayfield, Alexander;Miller, Ann;Miller, Jesse;Monroe, Joseph;Moss, James;Moss, Nicholas;Murphree, Modama;Nelson, Thomas S.;Niggins, Margaret;Noblet, John;Phillips, James;Pike, I. M.;Printup, Joseph J.;Putnam, Elias; Reeves, James;Rich, William;Robbins, Jeremiah;Roe, S. H.;Scott, Thomas D.;Scott, William;Sexton, Morgan;Sloan, John;Stagg, James;Strickland, Ephraim;Strickland, Sally; Swain, Jesse;Tabe, Abraham;Taylor, John;Thomas, Elizabeth;Thompson, Matthew;Tweedell, N. E. ;Veal, John;Walker, C. L.;Walker, Wells;Walker, William;Watts, Mary;Wilson, Elizabeth;Wilson, Joseph
Indexes to Probate Records
  • Estates and Wills, Bk A, 1856-1894.
  • Estates and Wills, Bk B, 1894-1931

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Saturday, September 17, 2016

New Echota, Cherokee Nation #history #genealogy #georgiapioneers

Jeannette Holland AustinNew Echota
By Jeannette Holland Austin

Before New Echota was settled the seat of the Cherokee tribe was located at Ustanali on the Coosawattee River which was established ca 1777 by refugees from the Cherokee Lower Towns in northwestern South Carolina after the murder of Old Tassel and other chiefs while on an embassy to the State of Franklin. Little Turkey was elected chief of the Cherokee and the seat of the Cherokee council was removed from Chota to Ustanali. New Echota (named after Choata) was the capital of the Cherokee Nation from 1825 to their forced removal in the 1830s. Today, the site is a State Park and Historic Site which is located North of Calhoun and South of Resaca, Georgia. It is situated at the confluence of the Coosawattee and Conasauga River, a tributary of the Coosa River. The tribal council also began a building program that included construction of a two-story Council House, a Supreme Court, and later the office (printer shop) of the first Indian language and Cherokee newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix. The editor and printer, Elias Boudinot wrote the newspaper in the Cherokee language. The Cherokee Phoenix. Issues of this newspaper are available at most regional libraries in Georgia on microfilm.

Council House
The Council House.

After the Congressional passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1832, Georgia included Cherokee territory in its Sixth Land Lottery, allocating Cherokee land to white settlers. The Cherokee Nation had never ceded the land to the state. Over the next six years, the Georgia Guard operated against the Cherokee, evicting them from their properties. By 1834, New Echota was becoming a ghost town. Council meetings were moved to Red Clay, Cherokee Nation (now Tennessee). The United States urged the Cherokee to remove to Indian Territory, in exchange for their lands in Georgia. It has been my experience in researching Cherokee heritages that all Cherokees were not removed from North Georgia. The applications of Indian descendants in Georgia to the Dawes Commission (to be awarded free Oklahoma land) reflect some interesting details. Although only a small portion of these applicants succeeded in proving as much as 1/32nd blood descent, those who did succeed traced themselves to one or more of the Indian Rolls. This is the key. Tribes kept Rolls, beginning about 1818, with the names of natives. The Cherokee Census and other records assist the genealogists. A list of the records available on Georgia Pioneers are listed here

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